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Politics

India is the largest democracy in the world. India has the biggest number of people with franchise rights and the largest number of political parties, which take part in election campaign. In the 1996 national elections, almost 600 million people voted and an average of 26 candidates competed for each of the 543 territorial constituency seats.

Elections are held at different levels. The two major election levels are at national level, after which the national government is established and at state level after which the state government is established. Elections are also held for city, town and village councils.

India has a federal form of government, and hence each state also has its own government. The executive of each state is the Governor (equivalent to the president of India), whose role is ceremonial. The real power resides with the Chief Minister (equivalent to the Prime Minister) and the state council of ministers. States may either have a unicameral or bicameral legislature, varying from state to state. The Chief Minister and other state ministers are also members of the legislature.

India has very diverse multi party political system. As on April 13, 2018 there are three types of political parties in India i.e. national parties (7), state recognized party (24) and registered unrecognised parties (2044).

Lok Sabha:

The Lower House of the Parliament is called the Lok Sabha. It is more popular than the Upper House in composition and complexion. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people of India.

Its maximum strength is 545 (Not more than 525 from the States to be elected directly. A candidate for membership of the Lok Sabha must be a citizen of India and not less than 30 years of age. The normal term of the House is five years. The House can, however, be dissolved earlier by the President.

Rajya Sabha:

The Rajya Sabha or the Council of States is the Upper House of Indian Parliament. It is sometimes called the “House of Elders”. It is the Second Chamber in the Indian Parliament.

Membership is limited to 250 members,12 of whom are nominated by the President of India for their contributions to Art,Literature,Science and Social Services. The remainder of the body is elected by the state and territorial legislatures.

The Rajya Sabha has various functions- which include legislative, financial, executive, electoral, as well as judicial powers.

Vidhan Sabha:

Under the constitution each Indian state shall have a Legislative Assembly which shall consist of not less than 36 and not more than 500 members. The members are to be elected on die basis of universal adult franchise, without any consideration for caste, creed and religion.

The constitution of India provides that a Legislative Assembly cannot have more than 500 members and less than 60 members.

Qualifications for membership of Legislative Assembly are more or less the same as those of the Lok Sabha. Every Indian citizen can become a member of Legislative Assembly provided he has attained 25 years of age and does not hold any office of profit either in the Union or state government. He cannot be simultaneously a member of two Houses of legislature.

State-wise Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad Seats are listed below.

S.no Name Of State Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha Vidhan Sabha Vidhan Parishad
1 Andhra Pradesh 25 11 175 58
2 Arunachal Pradesh 2 1 60 -
3 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 - - -
4 Assam 14 7 126 -
5 Bihar 40 16 243 75
6 Chhattisgarh 11 5 90 -
7 Chandigarh 1 - - -
8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 - - -
9 Daman and Diu 1 - - -
10 Goa 2 1 40 -
11 Gujarat 26 11 182 -
12 Haryana 10 5 90 -
13 Himachal Pradesh 4 3 68 -
14 Jammu & Kashmir 6 4 87 36
15 Jharkhand 14 6 81 -
16 Karnataka 28 12 224 75
17 Kerala 20 9 140 -
18 Lakshadweep 1 - - -
S.no Name Of State Lok
Sabha
Rajya
Sabha
Vidhan
Sabha
Vidhan
Parishad
19 Madhya Pradesh 29 11 230 -
20 Maharashtra 48 19 288 78
21 Manipur 2 1 60 -
22 Meghalaya 2 1 60 -
23 Mizoram 1 1 40 -
24 Nagaland 1 1 60 -
25 Odisha 21 10 147 -
26 Punjab 13 7 117 -
27 Rajasthan 25 10 200 -
28 Sikkim 1 1 32 -
29 Tamil Nadu 39 18 234 -
30 Tripura 2 1 60 -
31 Telangana 17 7 119 43
32 Uttarakhand 5 3 70 -
33 Uttar Pradesh 80 31 403 100
34 West Bengal 42 16 294 -
35 Delhi 7 3 70 -
36 Puduchery 1 1 30 -
37 Nominated 2 12 - -

List of all Prime Ministers in india from 1947 to Till-date

S.no Name Year
1 Jawaharlal Nehru 1947–1964
2 Gulzarilal Nanda 1964
3 Lal Bahadur Shastri 1964–1966
4 Gulzarilal Nanda 1966
5 Indira Gandhi 1966–1977
6 Morarji Desai 1977–1979
S.no Name Year
7 Charan Singh 1979–1980
8 Indira Gandhi 1980–1984
9 Rajiv Gandhi 1984–1989
10 V.P. Singh 1989–1990
11 Chandra Shekhar 1990–1991
12 P.V. Narasimha Rao 1991–1996
S.no Name Year
13 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1996
14 H.D. Deve Gowda 1996–1997
15 Inder K. Gujral 1997–1998
16 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1998–2004
17 Manmohan Singh 2004–2014
18 Narendra Modi 2014 –till date