India
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Indian states, capitals and their codes

Agriculture

India have a large and diverse agriculture, it is the 2nd largest agricultural nation in the world. India among the world’s leading producer of rice, milk, sugar, vegetables, Eggs, fruits, Seafood products. Agriculture is continues to be as a backbone of our society and it provides livelihood to nearly 50% of Indian people.

History

The word Agriculture is derived from Latin word ‘Ager’ means land or field and ‘Culture’ means cultivation. Humans invented agriculture during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age, which occurred between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago. India’s agriculture begun in 9000years ago. It is a result of early cultivation of plants and domestication of animals and considered as essential to survival of their lives.

Indus valley civilization is plays an important part in Indian history because irrigation process was developed in this era around 4500BCE. Majorly vast water storage and irrigation developed by Indus valley, it includes artificial reservoirs and canal irrigation.

Green Revolution in India :

Green revolution in India started in early 1960s.It majorly increases the food grain production in India especially in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh. Green Revolution is a period when Indian agriculture adopted modern methods and technologies. Such as Tractors, pesticides, fertilizers,high Yielding variety seeds. It is mainly found by M.S.Swaminathan.

Present Agriculture Scenario in India:

Indian agriculture today is structurally different than what it was during the Green Revolution era. Between the early-1970s and the late-nineties, India’s annual farm Gross Domestic Product (GDP) expanded from about US$25 billion to over US$100 billion. During this initial period, the growth was sluggish and it was largely cerealscentric, limited to wheat and rice. However, between 2000 and 2014, the country’s agricultural production has surged from US$101 billion to about US$367 billion, driven mainly by high-value segments such as horticulture, dairy, poultry and inland aquaculture. No other country has a more diverse food and non-food agriculture base as India and this generates the optimism that India can be a leading player in the world agricultural trade.

Agricultural Facts in India:

  1. India is the largest producer of Millet in the world and second largest producer of Wheat and Rice/Paddy.
  2. India is the largest producer of Chickpea and Pulses in the world.
  3. India is the largest producer of Ginger and Okra in the world and second for Dry Bean, Onion, Cabbage and other brassicas.
  4. India is third largest producer of Cauliflowers and Broccoli and Lettuce and chicory.
  5. India is the largest producer of Wood fuel and forest products.
  6. India is the largest producer of Buffalo Milk and Cow Milk in the world.
  7. India is the largest producer of safflower oil seeds and castor oil seed.
  8. India is the second largest producer of tea (first is China)
  9. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane (first is Brazil)
  10. India is the second largest producer of wheat (first is China)
  11. India is the second largest producer of silk (first is China)
  12. India is the Largest producer of Bananas.

 

CROPS OF INDIA

StatesCropsSoil Used
PunjabWheat, Rice, Maize, Barley, Pulses, Rapeseed and Mustard, Sunflower, Oil Seeds, Sugarcane, Cotton, Fruits, VegetablesFlood plain soil, Loamy soil, Sandy soil, Desert soil, Kandi Soil, Sierozems, Sodic and Saline soil
HaryanaSugarcane, Barley, Jowar, Bajra, Gram, Rice, Wheat, Mustard, CottonSalt Affected soil, Alkali Soil, Saline soil
RajasthanWheat, Sugarcane, Bajra, Baley, Jowar, Maize, Chili, Cotton, Mango, Rice, Vegetables, Groundnut, Oil seeds, PulsesSandy soil, Saline soil, Alkaline soil, Chalky soil, Clay soil, Loamy soil, Black Lava soil, Nitrogenous soil
Uttar PradeshFruits, Vegetables, Spices, Floriculture, Medicinal/aromatic plants, others like Betel vine, Mushroom, Honey productionAlluvium soil, Sandy soil, Clayey Soil, Red & Black soil
BiharRice, Wheat, Maize, Pulses, Vegetables, Fruits, Sugarcane, JuteSandy Loam soil, Loam soil, Clay soil, Clay Loam soil
GujaratRice, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, tur, Gram, Cotton, Groundnuts, Dates, SugarcaneBlack soil, Alluvial soil, Hill soil, Desert soil
Madhya PradeshWheat, Maize, Jowar, Gram, Tur, Urad, Moong, Soybean, Groundnuts, Mustard, Cotton, SugarcaneBlack soil, Red & Yellow soil, Alluvial soil, Laterite soil, Mixed soil
MaharashtraRice, Jowar, Bajra, Wheat, Pulses, Cotton, Sugarcane, Several Oil Seeds, Sunflower, Groundnuts & SoybeanBlack-Cotton soil, Kali soil, Morad soil, Pather soil.
ChhattisgarhRice, Maize, Wheat, Niger, Groundnut, PulsesRed & Yellow soil, Red Sandy soil, Red Loam soil, Black Cotton soil, Laterite soil.
JharkhandRice, Ragi, Maize, Wheat, Redgram, Niger, FruitsRed soil, Micacious soil, Sandy soil, Black.
Himachal PradeshOff-season vegetables, vegetables seeds, potato & ginger besides soybean, oilseeds, pulses, fruitsSedimentary soil, Brown soil, Brownish soil
Jammu & KashmirPaddy, Wheat, Maize, Barley, Bajra, Jowar, Gram, Apple, WalnutsBrown Forest soil, Grey Brown Podzolic soil, Red & Yellow Podzolic soil, Hills Forest soil, Mountain Meadow soil, Saline Alkali soil, Alluvial soil
West BengalRice, Jute, Tea, Potatoes, Oilseeds, Betel, Vine, Tobacco, Wheat, Barley, MaizeLaterite soil, Red soil, Alluvial soil, Coastal soil, Terai soil, Colluvial soil
KarnatakaPaddy, Jowar, Ragi, Maize, Sunflower, sugarcane, Cotton, TobaccoRed soil, Lateritic soil, Black soil, Alluvio-Colluvial soil, Forest soil, Coastal soil

LARGEST Crop Producing States of India

Food Grains
CropRank of States
Rice(1) West Bengal (2) U.P. (3) Andhra Pradesh
Wheat (1) U.P. (2) Punjab (3) Haryana
Bajra (1) Rajasthan (2) Gujarat (3) Maharashtra
Jowar (1) Maharashtra (2)Karnataka (3)Madhya Pradesh (M.P.)
Maize (1) Andhra Pradesh (2) Karnataka (3) Rajasthan
Pulses (1) M.P. (2) U.P. (3) Andhra Pradesh
Overall total food grains (1) U.P. (2)Punjab (3) Madhya Pradesh
Cash Crops
CropRank of States
Sugarcane (1) U.P. (2)Maharashtra (3) Karnataka
Cotton (1) Gujarat (2) Maharashtra (3) Andhra Pradesh
Coffee (1) Karnataka (2) Kerala (3)Tamilnadu
Tea (1) Assam (2) West Bengal (3) Himachal Pradesh
Silk (1) Karnataka (2) Andhra Pradesh (3) West Bengal
Rubber (1) Kerala (2) Tamilnadu (3) Karnataka
Tobacco (1) Andhra Pradesh (2) Karnataka (3)Gujarat
Oil Seed
CropRank of States
Groundnut (1) Gujarat (2) Andhra Pradesh (3) Tamilnadu
Soya bean (1) Madhya Pradesh (2) Maharashtra (3) Rajasthan
Mustard (1) Rajasthan (2) U.P. (3) Haryana
Sunflower (1) Karnataka (2) Andhra Pradesh (3) Maharashtra
Overall total oil seeds (1) Madhya Pradesh (2) Maharashtra (3) Rajasthan
Fruit Crops
CropRank of States
Banana Tamil Nadu
Gauva Madhya Pradesh
Grapes Maharashtra
Apple Jammu & Kashmir
Areca Nut Karnataka
Orange Punjab
Litchi Bihar
Mango Uttar Pradesh
Mosambi Maharashtra
Papaya Andhra Pradesh
Pineapple Karnataka
Pomegranate Maharashtra
Sapota or Chikoo Andhra Pradesh