## C - Language Theory

#### Operators:

An operator is a symbol that operates on a value or a variable.

For example: + is an operator to perform addition.

#### Types of operators in C :

- Arithmetic Operators
- Increment and Decrement Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Comma Operator

#### Arithmetic Operators

An arithmetic operator performs mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division etc on numerical values.

Operator | Meaning of Operator |
---|---|

+ | addition or unary plus |

- | subtraction or unary minus |

* | multiplication |

/ | division |

% | remainder after division (modulo division) |

#### Increment and Decrement Operators

C programming has two operators such as increment '++' and decrement '--' to change the value of an operand by 1.

Increment '++' means increases the value by 1 whereas decrement '--' means decreases the value by 1.

#### Assignment Operators

An assignment operator is used fpr assogmomg a value to a variable. The most common assignment operator is ' = '.

Operator | Example |
---|---|

= | a = b a = b |

+= | a += b a = a+b |

-= | a -= b a = a-b |

*= | a *= b a = a*b |

/= | a /= b a = a/b |

%= | a %= b a = a%b |

#### Relational Operators

A relational operator checks the relationship between two operands. If the relation is true, it returns 1; if the relation is false, it returns value 0.

Operator | Meaning of Operator | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Equal to | (A && B) is false. |

> | Greater than | 5 > 3 is evaluated to 1 |

< | Less than | 5 < 3 is evaluated to 0 |

!= | Not equal to | 5 != 3 is evaluated to 1 |

>= | Greater than or equal to | 5 >= 3 is evaluated to 1 |

<= | Less than or equal to | 5 <= 3 is evaluated to 0 |

#### Logical Operators

An expression containing logical operators returns either 0 or 1 depending upon whether expression results true or false. If the relation is true, it returns 1; if the relation is false, it returns value 0.

Operator | Meaning of Operator | Example |
---|---|---|

&& | Logical AND. True only if all operands are true | If c = 5 and d = 2 then, expression ((c==5) && (d>5)) equals to 0. |

|| | Logical OR. True only if either one operand is true | If c = 5 and d = 2 then, expression ((c==5) || (d>5)) equals to 1. |

! | Logical NOT. True only if the operand is 0 | If c = 5 then, expression !(c==5) equals to 0. |

#### Bitwise Operators

During computation, mathematical operations like: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc are converted to bit-level which makes processing faster and saves power.

Bitwise operators are used in C programming to perform bit-level operations.

Operator | Meaning of Operator |
---|---|

& | Bitwise AND |

| | Bitwise OR |

^ | Bitwise exclusive OR |

~ | Bitwise complement |

<< | Shift left |

>> | Shift right |

#### Comma Operator

Comma operators are used to link related expressions together.

**Ex: int a, c = 5, d;**